New coronavirus. Transmission paths and protection options.
It is now known that the new coronavirus is transmitted by droplet and contact.
The contact path prevails when the virus enters the mucous membranes of the nose, eyes through the hands or other objects (handkerchief, gloves) after touching objects (animals, meat, fish, door handles, handrails), contaminated (contaminated) secretions of the patient’s respiratory tract. or infected.
The virus is transmitted drop by person to person during coughing or sneezing with close contact, when droplets with a diameter of more than 5 microns are formed. Coronaviruses are not capable of supporting infectogenicity (transmission) during long-distance transmission. Therefore, close contact is considered to be less than 1 m, although some scientists allow the possibility of transfer (under certain conditions) up to 2 m.
Airborne viruses are transmitted from person to person via aerosol lobes (up to 5 μm in diameter) that can easily enter the alveoli and bronchioles (lower respiratory tract). This route of transmission and infection is not characteristic of coronaviruses, although it is possible under certain conditions – for example, in aerosol forming procedures. These include only medical procedures – bronchoscopy, tracheal intubation, rehabilitation of the tracheobronchial tree in a patient undergoing ventilation, and the like. Therefore, for most of the population, this path is not terrible.
So, how do ordinary citizens prevent a new coronavirus infection?
1. Do not touch potentially contaminated surfaces, including animals, in contaminated areas.
2. Treat them carefully and often with an antiseptic.
Hand treatment with alcohol-containing antiseptic:
Alcohol-containing hand antiseptic – solution containing 60-80% alcohol or 2% chlorhexidine (other means sold as “hand antiseptics”, for example, chamomile infusion or solutions with 40% alcohol content, are not);
The antiseptic should cover the entire surface of the skin of the hands (on average, for one treatment, 3 ml of a solution constituting 24-27 “zilch” with a pocket dispenser should be used, so it is recommended to pour it into the palm of your hand);
processing time – about 30 s;
Pay special attention to the nails (most dirt accumulates there);
Mandatory procedure in case of any contact with (potentially) contaminated objects;
With frequent use of antiseptic, use hand cream to avoid drying out and cracks in the skin;
Control access of young children to antiseptic (it contains alcohol and is toxic for ingestion).
3. Avoid clusters of people.
4. If you get sick, stay home and see your doctor.
5. Use a protective mask:
Rest assured – if you are ill and have respiratory symptoms (cough, runny nose);
If you have a large crowd, for extra protection.
Use mask properly:
It should cover the nose and mouth;
It should fit snugly, without indentation at the edges;
Replace the mask (or protective filter) as soon as it becomes moist;
Do not touch the outer part of the mask with your hands, and if touched, treat it with an antiseptic agent containing alcohol;
Replace the mask or mask filter for 2-4 hours;
Do not reuse the mask filter.